Alkali Lignin from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Husk as Adsorbent for Aqueous Methyl Orange and Bromothymol Blue: Analysis of the Adsorption Kinetics and Mechanism
In this study, lignin was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) husk using alkaline extraction method and was used as an adsorbent for aqueous solutions of methyl orange (MO) and bromothymol blue (BTB). The equilibrium removal rate of MO was found to be at 61.4%, with experimental equilibrium adsorbate uptake, qe, of 1.23 mg·g-1, achieved at 150 minutes contact time. For BTB, the equilibrium removal rate was found to be at 78.3%, with an experimental qe of 1.57 mg·g-1, achieved at 150 minutes contact time. Pseudo-first order (PFO) and pseudo-second order (PSO) kinetic models were then used to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process. Both MO and BTB on lignin were found to follow a PSO kinetic model, with rates of 6.84 x 10-3 g·mg-1·min-1 and 0.69 g·mg-1·min-1, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Flory Huggins (FH), and Temkin adsorption isotherm models were then used to determine the appropriate equilibrium adsorption model for both substrates. Based on the calculations performed, the Temkin model best described the adsorptive removal of both MO and BTB. Based on the Temkin model, the adsorption processes of both MO and BTB were found to occur spontaneously, with equilibrium rate constants of 0.083 L·mg-1 and 0.012 L·mg-1, respectively.
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