Polyaniline In Situ Grafted to Graphene Sheets

  • Elliard Roswell S. Yanza Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City
  • Geoffrey Matthew C. Tan Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City
  • Christine Joy U. Querebillo Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City
  • Armando S. Somintac National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Diliman, Quezon City
  • Arnel A. Salvador National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Diliman, Quezon City
  • Erwin P. Enriquez Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City
Keywords: graphene, polyaniline, diazonium salts, composite

Abstract

Graphene is one of the most promising allotropes of carbon with wide applications in nanotechnology. Modification of graphene by chemical means can further expand its uses. Here, liquid-exfoliated graphene is functionalized with p-aminophenyl moiety using p-nitrophenyl diazonium salts which were diazotized in situ then reduced by tin(II) chloride. The aminophenyl-graphene thus produced is further modified to form polyaniline-graphene (PANI-GNH) by in situ oxidative graft polymerization of aniline using ammonium peroxydisulfate as oxidizing agent. The properties of the PANI-GNH were compared with polyaniline/graphene blends by Raman, infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Indeed, PANI-GNH registered different spectrochemical and electrochemical properties compared with the physically blended PANI and GNH, a manifestation of the effect of chemical grafting on the overall property of the modified graphene.

References

Bao Y, Song J, Mao Y, Han D, Yang F, Niu L, et al. Graphene Oxide-Templated Polyaniline Microsheets toward Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of AA/DA/

UA. Electroanalysis. 2011; 23(4):878-84.

Bellamy FD, Ou K. Selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with stannous chloride in non acidic and non aqueous medium. Tetrahedron Lett. 1984; 25(8):839-42.

Bhadra S, Khastgir D, Singha NK, Lee JH. Progress in preparation, processing and applications of polyaniline. Prog Polym Sci. 2009 Aug; 34(8):783-810.

Bo Y, Yang H, Hu Y, Yao T, Huang S. A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on graphene and polyaniline nanowires. Electrochimica Acta. 2011 Feb 15; 56(6):2676-81.

Chang Yanhong, Wang Bin, Luo Hui, Zhi Linjie. Synthesis of Polyaniline/Graphene Composites and Its Application in Detecting Heavy Metal Ions. E-Prod E-Serv E-Entertain ICEEE 2010 Int Conf. 2010. p. 1-4.

Chatterjee S, Layek RK, Nandi AK. Changing the morphology of polyaniline from a nanotube to a flat rectangular nanopipe by polymerizing in the presence of amino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its resulting increase in photocurrent. Carbon. 2013 Feb; 52(0):509-19.

Chen F, Liu P, Zhao Q. Well-defined graphene/polyaniline flake composites for high performance supercapacitors. Electrochimica Acta. 2012 Aug 1; 76(0):62-8.

Devi R, Relhan S, Pundir CS. Construction of a chitosan/polyaniline/graphene oxide nanoparticles/polypyrrole/Au electrode for amperometric determination of urinary/plasma oxalate. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2013 Sep; 186(0):17-26.

Dimitriev OP. Confinement of Polyaniline Chains in Thin Layers of the Polymer Solution. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2001; 235:380-382.

Gao Z, Yang W, Wang J, Wang B, Li Z, Liu Q, et al. A New Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheet/Polyaniline Nanowafer Hybrid as Supercapacitor Electrode Material. Energy Fuels. 2012 Dec 15; 27(1):568-75.

Green AA, Hersam MC. Emerging Methods for Producing Monodisperse Graphene Dispersions. J Phys Chem Lett. 2010; 1(2):544-549.

Hamilton CE, Lomeda JR, Sun Z, Tour JM, Barron AR. High-Yield Organic Dispersions of Unfunctionalized Graphene. Nano Lett. 2009 Oct 14; 9(10):3460-2.

Hsiao MC, Liao SH, Yen MY, Liu PI, Pu NW, Wang CA, Ma CCM. Preparation of covalently functionalized graphene using residual oxygen-containing functional groups. ACS App Mater Inter. 2010; 2(11): 3092-9.

Hu X-W, Mao C-J, Song J-M, Niu H-L, Zhang S-Y, Huang H. Fabrication of GO/PANi/

CdSe nanocomposites for sensitive electrochemiluminescence biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Mar 15; 41(0):372-8.

Huang J, Lin Q, Zhang X, He X, Xing X, Lian W, et al. Electrochemical immunosensor based on polyaniline/poly (acrylic acid) and Au-hybrid graphene nanocomposite for sensitivity enhanced detection of salbutamol. Food Res Int. 2011 Jan; 44(1):92-7.

Jin Y, Huang S, Zhang M, Jia M. Preparation of sulfonated graphene–polyaniline nanofiber composites by oil/water interfacial polymerization and their application for supercapacitors. Synth Met. 2013 Mar 15; 168(0):58-64.

Jorio A, Dresselhaus M, Saito R, Dresselhaus GF. Raman Spectroscopy in Graphene Related Systems. 2011, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 91.

Jung JW, Lee JU, Jo WH. High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Water-Soluble and Self-Doped Conducting Polyaniline Graft Copolymer as Hole Transport Layer. J Phys Chem C. 2010 Jan 14; 114(1):633-7.

Konwer S, Guha A, Dolui S. Graphene oxide-filled conducting polyaniline composites as methanol-sensing materials. J Mater Sci. 2013 Feb 1; 48(4):1729-39.

Kumar M, Singh K, Dhawan SK, Tharanikkarasu K, Chung JS, Kong B-S, et al. Synthesis and characterization of covalently-grafted graphene–polyaniline nanocomposites and its use in a supercapacitor. Chem Eng J. 2013 Sep; 231(0):397-405.

Kumar NA, Choi H-J, Shin YR, Chang DW, Dai L, Baek J-B. Polyaniline-Grafted Reduced Graphene Oxide for Efficient Electrochemical Supercapacitors. ACS Nano. 2012 Jan 25; 6(2):1715-23.

Lai L, Yang H, Wang L, Teh BK, Zhong J, Chou H, et al. Preparation of Supercapacitor Electrodes through Selection of Graphene Surface Functionalities. ACS Nano. 2012 May 26; 6(7):5941-51.

Li C, Shi G. Synthesis and electrochemical applications of the composites of conducting polymers and chemically converted graphene. Electrochimica Acta [Internet]. In Press, Corrected Proof. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TG0-51WV07S-2/2/529dac0056159b3a9

df4d2308e4c665e

Li J, Liu S, Yu J, Lian W, Cui M, Xu W, et al. Electrochemical immunosensor based on graphene–polyaniline composites and carboxylated graphene oxide for estradiol detection. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2013 Nov; 188(0):99-105.

Li Y, Peng H, Li G, Chen K. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of sandwich-like polyaniline/graphene composite nanosheets. Eur Polym J. 2012 Aug; 48(8):1406-12.

Li Z-F, Zhang H, Liu Q, Sun L, Stanciu L, Xie J. Fabrication of High-Surface-Area Graphene/Polyaniline Nanocomposites and Their Application in Supercapacitors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Mar 12; 5(7):2685-91.

Liu C-Y, Huang K-C, Chung P-H, Wang C-C, Chen C-Y, Vittal R, et al. Graphene-modified polyaniline as the catalyst material for the counter electrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell. J Power Sources. 2012 Nov 1; 217:152-7.

Liu H, Wang Y, Gou X, Qi T, Yang J, Ding Y. Three-dimensional graphene/polyaniline composite material for high-performance supercapacitor applications. Mater Sci Eng B. 2013 Mar 20; 178(5):293-8.

Liu L, Ryu S, Tomasik MR, Stolyarova E, Jung N, Hybertsen MS, et al. Graphene Oxidation: Thickness-Dependent Etching and Strong Chemical Doping. Nano Lett. 2008 Jul 1; 8(7):1965-70.

Liu S, Xing X, Yu J, Lian W, Li J, Cui M, et al. A novel label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on graphene–polyaniline composite film for dopamine determination. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012 Jun; 36(1):186-91.

Lu C-H, Yang H-H, Zhu C-L, Chen X, Chen G-N. A Graphene Platform for Sensing Biomolecules. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2009; 48(26):4785-7.

Luo Z, Zhu L, Zhang H, Tang H. Polyaniline uniformly coated on graphene oxide sheets as supercapacitor material with improved capacitive properties. Mater Chem Phys. 2013 May 15; 139(2–3):572-9.

Mazur M, Krysiński P. Covalently Immobilized 1,4-Phenylenediamine on 11-Mercaptoundecanoic Acid-Coated Gold: Effect of Surface-Confined Monomers on the Chemical in Situ Deposition of Polyaniline and Its Derivatives. Langmuir. 2001 Oct 1; 17(22):7093-101.

Ni SB, Li HB, Li S, Zhu JL, Tan J Sun XY, et al. Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystals with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets. J Mater Chem C. 2014; 2:1730-1735.

Radhapyari K, Kotoky P, Das MR, Khan R. Graphene–polyaniline nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artesunate in pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluids. Talanta. 2013 Jul 15; 111(0):47-53.

Reddy KR, Sin BC, Ryu KS, Kim J-C, Chung H, Lee Y. Conducting polymer functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with noble metal nanoparticles: Synthesis, morphological characteristics and electrical properties. Synth Met. 2009 Apr; 159(7-8):595-603.

Remyamol T, John H, Gopinath P. Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline. Carbon. 2013 Aug; 59(0):308-14.

Ren L, Huang S, Zhang C, Wang R, Tjiu W, Liu T. Functionalization of graphene and grafting of temperature-responsive surfaces from graphene by ATRP “on water.”J Nanoparticle Res. 2012 Jun 1; 14(6):1-9.

Ruecha N, Rangkupan R, Rodthongkum N, Chailapakul O. Novel paper-based cholesterol biosensor using graphene/polyvinyl-pyrrolidone/polyaniline nanocomposite. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb 15; 52(0):13-9.

Sahoo S, Karthikeyan G, Nayak G, Das C. Modified graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites for supercapacitor application. Macromol Res. 2012 Apr 1; 20(4):415-21.

Saini D, Basu T. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on polyaniline-gold/grapheme nanosheets. Appl Nanosci. 2012; 2:467-479.

Sarker AK, Hong J-D. Electrochemical reduction of ultrathin graphene oxide/polyaniline films for supercapacitor electrodes with a high specific capacitance. Colloids Surfaces Physicochem Eng Asp. 2013 Sep 5; 436(0):967-74.

Shan C, Yang H, Han D, Zhang Q, Ivaska A, Niu L. Electrochemical determination of NADH and ethanol based on ionic liquid-functionalized graphene. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010 Feb 15; 25(6):1504-8.

Sharma R, Baik JH, Perera CJ, Strano MS. Anomalously Large Reactivity of Single Graphene Layers and Edges toward Electron Transfer Chemistries. Nano Lett. 2010 Feb 10; 10(2):398-405.

Sharma S, Kumar D. Study on solvatochromic behaviour of polyaniline and alkyl substituted polyanilines. Indian J Eng Mater S. 2010; 17:231-237.

Shen J, Yang C, Li X, Wang G. High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on Nanoarchitectured Polyaniline/Graphene/Carbon Nanotube and Activated Graphene Electrodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Aug 9; 5(17):8467-76.

Sheng Q, Wang M, Zheng J. A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on enzymatically induced deposition of polyaniline on the functionalized graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Sensors Actuators B Chem [Internet]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400511008306

Shulga YM, Baskakov SA, Abalyaeva VV, Efimov ON, Shulga NY, Michtchenko A, et al. Composite material for supercapacitors formed by polymerization of aniline in the presence of graphene oxide nanosheets. J Power Sources. 2013 Feb 15; 224(0):195-201.

Wan L, Wang S, Wang X, Dong B, Xu Z, Zhang X, et al. Room-temperature fabrication of graphene films on variable substrates and its use as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Solid State Sci. 2011 Feb; 13(2):468-75.

Wang G, Zhuo S, Xing W. Graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite as counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Mater Lett. 2012 Feb 15; 69:27-9.

Wang L, Ye YJ, Lu XP, Wen ZB, Li Z, Hou HQ, et al. Hierarchical Nanocomposites of Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets for Supercapacitors. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2013. Available from: http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131220/srep03568/full/srep03568.html.

Wehling TO, Novoselov KS, Morozov SV, Vdovin EE, Katsnelson MI, Geim AK, et al. Molecular Doping of Graphene. Nano Lett. 2008 Jan 1; 8(1):173-7.

Published
2014-12-12
How to Cite
Yanza, E. R. S., Tan, G. M. C., Querebillo, C. J. U., Somintac, A. S., Salvador, A. A., & Enriquez, E. P. (2014). Polyaniline In Situ Grafted to Graphene Sheets. KIMIKA, 25(2), 23-35. https://doi.org/10.26534/kimika.v25i2.23-35
Section
Research Articles